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Medical surgical instruments of antiquity. First stethoscopes of Laennec, Ferguson, Pinard. Hot Water Bottles. Inscribed votive relief.Feeding Bottle. Portraits Doctors

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The result was the consrtuctions of a  completely functional stethoscope, real jewel for every doctor’s office.
TheFerguson stethoscope was created by bubinga wood and after the cut was processed aiming the closure of the holes, according the methods of accoustics of the most importants wind instruments.about Adolphe Pinard220px-Adolphe_Pinard_2

A Pinard horn is a tool used to listen the heart rate of a fetus during pregnancy. It is a type of stethoscope, formerly called a “fetoscope”, but the term is still sometimes associated with the Pinard stethoscope. Made of wood or metal and is hollow. It is about 8 inches long. It functions similarly to an ear trumpet by amplifying sound.
Adolphe Pinard (4 February 1844 – 1 March 1934) was a French obstetrician who was a native of Méry-sur-Seine. He practiced medicine in Paris, where he was an assistant to Étienne Stéphane Tarnier (1828–1897) and a professor of obstetrics, as well as a member of parliament for the Paris region.

Pinard was a pioneer of modern perinatal care and the “puericulture movement” — the teaching of infant care to expectant mothers in French obstetrics. His contribution in infant medicin examination and monter care established his fame until nowadays. Pinard name is also used in “Pinard’s maneuvre”, a technique used in breech extraction.

In 1895 he invented a special stethoscope for listening to fetal activity.

Pinard was a founder member of the French Eugenics Society in 1913 and served as its president. Eugenic ideas were incorporated into his idea of ‘puériculture’. He also served as a parliamentary deputy for the Radical party between 1919 and 1928, expressing his sympathy towards French feminism.

Today the Maternité Adolphe-Pinard in Nancy and the Boulevard Adolphe Pinard in Paris are named after him. This boulevard is a boundary between Paris and the city of Malakoff.


The Fergusson model of the monaural stethoscope was designed in England and became the most popular model used in the later half of 19th century medical practice. It was made of straight grained, less dense woods with a small bore central hole such that sounds were readily transmitted. It measured approximately 7 inches in length with a slender stem that had a rounded chest-end bell about 1 inch in diameter that rested comfortably on the patient. The ear plate was approximately 2.5 inches in diameter and fit snuggly over the ear in order to prevent disperson of the transmitted sounds. The Fergusson stethoscopes often had a maker’s mark, physician’s name or initials, or other identifying characteristic engraved on the ear plate.

Who designed this stethoscope? There were two British doctors with similar names during the later part of the 19th century who might have been involved in the design of this model of the stethoscope.


Sir William Fergusson was a leading scotish surgeon, educated at at the University of Edinburgh and surgeon at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh where the stethoscope was in use at that time. He was appointed Professor of Surgery at Kings College Hospital in London when he was just 32 years old and eventually was appointed surgeon to both Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Dr Fergusson was widely recognized for his operastive skills, conservative approach to surgery and invention of many useful surgical instruments. His text on “System of Practical Surgery” first published in 1842 was highly regarded, but only mentions the use of the stethoscope for ausculatation. Although he was aslo noted to be a be an excellent carpenter, rivaling skilled artisans, there is no record of his designing a stethoscope.

Dr. John Creey Ferguson was an Irish physician educated at Trinity College and The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. His close friend in Dublin was Dr. William Stokes, who was an expert on auscultation and wrote a text on stethoscopy while just a medical student! Dr. Ferguson spent one year in Paris studying with Laennec and Kergradec to learn the use of the stethocope, most especially for fetal auscultation. In 1830, Dr. Ferguson puplished his classic treatis on “Ausculatation the only unequivical evidence of preganancy” in the Dublin Medical Transactions (the only issue of this journal ever published). Dr. Ferguson was noted for his advocacy of using the stethoscope for fetal auscultation. He eventually becamethe First Professor of Medicine at Queens University, although he recieved little rcognition at home or abroad. There also is no record of his designing a stethoscope.

In addition, during the same period of time, there was a prominent instrument maker named David Ferguson who was the instrument maker to the St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in London. Mr. Ferguson demonstarted the use of a unique “teaching” monaural stethoscope at the International Exhibition of 1862 n London. Indeed, on this very website there is an Alison differential binaural stethoscope marked “Ferguson.”

In view of the listing of the Fergusson model of the stethoscope spelled with two “s” in English instrument-maker catalogues of the day such as Down Brothers, Arnold and Sons, Alllen & Hansbury and Maw (although it should be noted that in the classic American Armamentarium Chirurgicum by George Tiemann & Co. the name for this model of stethoscope was spelled Ferguson) and the prominence of Sir William Fergusson in England, most assume that he either designed this stethoscope or the stethoscope was named after him. However, the origin of the most popular model of the 19th century monaural stethosope that was used well into the early part of the 20th century remains unclear.